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Archival excerpts:

The Subtle Problems of Charity (February 1899)
by Jane Addams
A decade after co-founding Hull House, the renowned settlement house in Chicago, the pioneering social worker Jane Addams made note of the sometimes-enlightening challenge of dispensing aid to men and women of a different class and background.

State Pensions or Charity? (May 1930)
by Alice Hamilton
Seven months after the stock-market crash of 1929, Alice Hamilton, a doctor who had worked with Jane Addams at Hull House and was now the first woman on the faculty at Harvard Medical School, made a case for government-issued pensions for the needy.

Private Fortunes and the Public Future (August 1935)
by Abraham Flexner
In the midst of the Great Depression, as the federal government began to take an increasingly active role in looking after citizen welfare, the educator Abraham Flexner, who founded the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study, urged readers to remember that private philanthropy, too, has a crucial role to play.

The Capitalist Threat (February 1997)
by George Soros
In 1997, the billionaire and international philanthropist George Soros contended that great fortunes are made to be redistributed.