Um, guys. I have some information to share with you, and fair warning, it's, uh, going to make you scrutinize your speech for several days.
You know when you're searching for a word, or trying to say something more nicely than you actually mean it, or trying to make up your mind after you've already started speaking? Whether you reach for an "um" or an "uh" in those situations might depend on whether you're male or female.
Our verbal pauses actually speak volumes: "Like," as eighth-grade English teachers will tell you, makes the speaker sound young or ditzy; "sort of" smacks of uncertainty. But according to the linguist Mark Liberman, who works at the University of Pennsylvania and blogs at Language Log, even a difference as subtle as the one between "um" and "uh" provides clues about the speaker's gender, language skills, and even life experience.
For his analyses, Liberman has been parsing 14,000 transcribed phone conversations, which together comprise more than 26 millions words and involve about 12,000 speakers from all over the U.S.
Back in 2005, he found that usage of "uh" increases with age, but at every age, men say it more than women do. Meanwhile, usage of "um" decreases with age, but female speakers said it more than male ones at each stage in life:
Usage of 'Uh' and 'Um' Among Men and Women
When the two genders are speaking to each other, they try to meet in the middle: "Males use uh about 14 percent less often when talking with a female rather than a male, and females use uh about about 20 percent more often when talking with a male rather than a female," Liberman writes. (There's not nearly as much accommodation with "um.")
What Liberman found, essentially, was that young men speak like old women: "The rate of 'um' usage for the younger men is almost the same as the rate of 'um' usage for the older women."
It's hard to determine what, exactly, this says about how the two genders think about themselves—or their words. One 2001 paper found that men use all kinds of "language fillers" more frequently than women do. But a study published in June found that while men and women say either "um" or "uh" roughly equal amounts, women say "you know," "like," and "I mean" more often. That study suggested that people who use these types of "discourse markers" are more empathetic and conscientious—two traits women are often thought to be socialized to exhibit.
Liberman also posits that "um" and "uh" portray language fluency and intelligence differently. "People tend to use UM when they're trying to decide what to say, and UH when they're trying to decide how to say it," he told me in an email. "As people get older, they have less trouble deciding what to say (because they know more stuff), and more trouble deciding how to say it (because they know more words and fixed phrases, and so have a harder time making a choice). As a result, older people use fewer UMs and more UHs."