As a sophomore at Harvard, Rebecca Onie was already revolutionizing Boston's health care system by co-founding Project HEALTH, now called Health Leads, at Boston Medical Center. Fifteen years later, as Health Leads's CEO, she's breaking the link between poor health and poverty by mobilizing an energetic yet unusual group of health workers: ambitious college students. Her organization, which today serves six cities, teaches student volunteers to help low-income patients fill social "prescriptions" such as better food, housing, and job training.
Onie also received a degree from Harvard Law and worked briefly as an attorney in Chicago. Since returning to Health Leads in 2006, she has been honored as one of TIME magazine's 100 most influential people, a MacArthur Fellow, and a member of O, the Oprah Magazine's "Power List" of women who are "changing the world for the better." Here, she discusses non-medical needs that are nonetheless critical to health, how young people can improve patient care, and her perfect pump-up song.
What do you say when people ask you, "What do you do?"
Health Leads' ultimate goal is a health care system in which doctors are able to prescribe solutions that improve health, not just manage disease. Every day, doctors in poor communities across the U.S. prescribe antibiotics to patients who have no food at home or are living in a car. Of course, medicine alone won't solve these problems, and many of these patients will return with more serious—and more expensive—illnesses.
In the hospitals and health centers where Health Leads operates, doctors can "prescribe" healthy food, safe housing, exercise programs, or other key resources—just as they would medication. Families then take their prescriptions to the clinic waiting room, where Health Leads's corps of 1,000 college volunteers work with them to access these resources in their communities. Nearly 60 percent of Health Leads patients secure at least one critical resource—receiving food, getting their heat turned back on, finding a job—within 90 days of getting their "prescription."
What new idea or innovation is having the most significant impact on medicine or public health?
The medical home model—now a darling of the national health care dialogue—is not new in concept, but is being embraced by health care institutions in ways that may give it real life. The rather obvious idea that patients must be treated comprehensively to achieve better health outcomes is revolutionizing the way that clinics structure their care protocols, their staffing structures, and even their physical design. In many ways, medical homes represent the long overdue integration of "medicine" and "public health," bringing services that address the non-medical but health-critical needs of patients into the clinic itself.
What's something that most people just don't understand about your field?
These days, health care in the U.S. seems so messy: expensive, impenetrable, bureaucratic, and partisan. What people don't see as readily is that what is needed to move the needle on health outcomes is often quite simple. Health Leads's model, for example, is straightforward, cheap, and effective: We're demonstrating that a desk in a clinic waiting room staffed by a couple of college volunteers can empower health care providers to ask their patients a whole new set of questions—and begin to transform the health care system into one that is actually responsive to the full set of factors that impact health.
What's an emerging trend that you think will shake up the health care sector?
With millions of new patients entering the health care system with coverage provided by the Affordable Care Act, the primary care workforce shortage is increasingly dire. At the same time, clinic infrastructure to address the complex needs of those patients is nearly non-existent: At New York-Presbyterian's Washington Heights Family Health Center, for example, there is one social worker for 47,000 low-income patients. Faced with this profound capacity constraint, the U.S. has the opportunity to tap a trend long utilized in global health but only recently gaining momentum domestically: clinic extenders. From community health workers to Health Leads's own college volunteers, the emergence of non-traditional health care workforces could be game-changing.
What's a health trend that you wish would go away?
The health care system continues to focus disproportionately on "care" at the expense of "health." Because Medicaid does not generally reimburse for social workers, case managers, or community health workers under the prevailing "fee for service" payment structure, each clinic must carve out precious discretionary funds from its operating budget for this purpose—resulting in limited capacity to address the real factors impacting patient health.