In an article yesterday, I argued that Miley Cyrus's twerking and Janis Joplin's blues singing were both examples of a kind of racial minstrelsy. Cyrus wants to shed her good-white-girl image, so she adopts the stereotypical image of black women as ultra-sexual to make herself seem edgy and sexual. Joplin, similarly, adopts the stereotypical image of black blues women as earthy, authentic, and enduring to give her performance a depth that (by sexist convention) isn't usually associated with white women. The process, I argued, is broadly the same, and broadly racist. Joplin's talent means that the racism is easier to ignore, or look past, but it doesn't change the basic dynamic of how black women are being used.
The piece generated a lot of resistance, and I'm not surprised. Joplin is very popular, as she deserves to be. As a white person, and as someone who enjoys her music a great deal, I find it painful to talk about and think about the aspects of racism in her work, both because I admire her, and because they reflect on me.
Several commenters, of various backgrounds, raised an objection that I think goes to the heart of my argument, and that I therefore wanted to respond to at some length. These commenters argued that calling Joplin racist cheapens the charge of racism, and weakens our ability to call out real racism when we see it. Joplin's appropriation of black voices is clearly moving, sincere, and in good faith. If you're going to call that racism, the argument seems to imply, you won't have anything left to call Miley Cyrus, much less the KKK.
I think this argument has things the wrong way round. People aren't too eager to find racism. On the contrary, they tend to be way, way too shy about pointing it out. When people talk about racism, they tend, in my experience, to want to look for intent, or, as with Cyrus, for stupidity. David Duke is a racist; Hitler is a racist; evil people (or very dumb people) are racist. Folks like Joplin, who are clearly well-intentioned, smart, thoughtful, and talented, are not.
But that's the whole point of comparing Cyrus and Joplin. Joplin is an amazing artist; Cyrus is an embarrassment. And yet, they're doing the same thing, because they are working in the same systems. Both are white, Southern women. Both want to get out of the bind of stereotypical white, Southern, passive femininity—which codes white women as vulnerable, desirable but not desiring, pretty, fragile, and frivolous. Both want instead to be aggressive, independent, sexual, and authentic. And both so this by deploying stereotypes of black women.
In short, racism isn't something you overcome by being an exemplary white person. Even with all her talent, even with all her skill, Joplin still ends up being racist, because the culture, and the pop milieu she exists in, is racist. In defining herself, in creating her image, she uses the materials at hand, and many of those materials are racist stereotypes. So she ends up underlining and validating those stereotypes — a fact made painfully clear (as I mentioned in the piece yesterday) by the Cheap Thrills album cover, which uses the racist caricature of a black mammy in order to situate Joplin's "Summertime" as deriving from authentic black sources. Similarly, Cyrus's equation of black females with sex is a way for her to declare herself more sexual—but it also reinforces stereotypes that have racist effects on actual black women, as Tressie McMillan Cottom outlines in some detail.