From Blair Witch to Dark Knight to Prometheus, movies' increasingly elaborate interactive ad campaigns rely on fan fervor—even if they don't guarantee box office success.
A few weeks ago, I received an email from the year 2073. As a "valued shareholder" of Weyland Industries—the space exploration company at the center of Prometheus, Ridley Scott's new sci-fi thriller, which arrives in theaters tomorrow—I was invited to complete "an exhaustive battery of both physical and cognitive tests" that would determine if I was a good candidate for Project Prometheus. I immediately clicked over to the Project Prometheus web forum, where members were working on cracking what they believed was a secret embedded in the code of the website. As the real-life strangers banded together to search for the Internet equivalent of buried treasure, one commented, "I foresee another sleepless night..."
I recently ended up investing a few hours into an alternate-reality game that turned out to be a promotion for Wrigley's 5 Gum.
In the run-up to its release, Prometheus has been promoted like any other film: theatrical trailers, 15-second commercials, guest appearances by its stars on a variety of late-night shows. But Prometheus' most interesting advertisements—which have ranged from a TED Talk delivered by Guy Pearce's Peter Weyland in the year 2023 to a video explaining the technology behind David-8, the android played by Michael Fassbender—have gone straight to the Internet, to be devoured and deciphered by an enthusiastic (and sometimes obsessive) fanbase. And I should know. I'm one of them.
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The modern Hollywood viral campaign can trace its roots back to the late '90s, when a group of savvy producers (including future transmedia specialists Mike Monello and Gregg Hale) saw a chance to boost the box office of an unconventional horror film called The Blair Witch Project. The film's weaknesses—tiny budget, unrecognizable actors, limited point of view—were turned into strengths with BlairWitch.com, a heavily-promoted tie-in website that treated the film as if it were a genuine documentary. Less than a month after the film's release, the Chicago Tribune reported that BlairWitch.com had received nearly 80 million hits. On a miniscule production budget of $60,000, The Blair Witch Project outgrossed expensive horror cousins like Sleepy Hollow and The Haunting by tens of millions—and forever changed Hollywood's marketing approach.
By today's standards, The Blair Witch Project's website, which features a few "found" audiotapes and a timeline of the Blair Witch story, is almost adorably quaint. And its effectiveness was short-lived: Once the events depicted in The Blair Witch Project were fact-checked and discounted, the "is it real?" promotional gambit couldn't easily be replicated (see the ridiculous copycat website for this year's The Devil Inside, which hasn't had a new post since January 12). But if fans could no longer be tricked into thinking a fictional film was real, studios could at least try to make the viral marketing compelling enough that fans would pretend it was real.
Less than two years after the smash success of The Blair Witch Project, Hollywood viral marketing leapt forward with a complex, amorphous game called "The Beast." Though "The Beast" was ostensibly a promotional tool for Steven Speilberg's A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, its reach was far broader and stranger than BlairWitch.com. By researching "Jeanine Salla"—a name credited in A.I.'s trailers and posters as a "sentient machine therapist"—curious fans suddenly found themselves embroiled in a murder mystery set in the year 2142, with a scope that eventually included thousands of websites, a series of real-time faxes and phone calls, and "anti-robot" rallies in three major U.S. cities.
"The Beast" was the first truly successful "alternate reality game," or ARG—a type of promotion that attempts to blur the lines between the real world and a fictional one. Though "puppetmasters" control each game's major events, by their very design, ARGs are unpredictable and uncontrollable. A group at Microsoft that created and engineered "The Beast" and later went on to found 42 Entertainment says that more than 3 million people participated in the game, from dozens of countries across the world, before its solution was reached in the weeks leading up to A.I. Artificial Intelligence's release.