Pondering that new Revolution, Longfellow got to thinking about the old one. In April 1860, he began writing "Paul Revere's Ride." While he worked on the poem, he worried about the fate of the nation. Around the same time he went to see Frederick Douglass speak and read Sumner's latest speech, which predicted that "the sacred animosity between Freedom and Slavery can end only with the triumph of Freedom." In November, weeks after finishing "Paul Revere's Ride," Longfellow rejoiced in his diary that Lincoln had won the presidency; echoing Sumner, he wrote: "Freedom is triumphant.""Paul Revere's Ride" was published in the January 1861 issue of The Atlantic, which appeared on newsstands on Dec. 20. It was read as a rallying cry for the Union. It is a poem about waking the sleeping, and waking the dead: "Beneath, in the churchyard, lay the dead,/ In their night encampment on the hill." The dead are Northerners, awakened, at last aroused. But the dead are also the enslaved, entombed in slavery -- an image that was, at the time, a common conceit: Douglass called his escape "a resurrection from the dark and pestiferous tomb of slavery."
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