by Phoebe-Lou Adams
Creation of a Legacy 1770-1870
Charles Peale, the son of a well-connected clergyman, was transported to the colonies circa 1736 on a charge of embezzlement. He became a schoolteacher, earning more respect than money, and the father of an unexpected dynasty. His son Charles Willson, having studied with Benjamin West, taught first his brother James to paint and then as many of their children and connections, male or female, as could be persuaded to hold a brush. He gave his own sons encouraging names: Raphaelle, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Titian were all sound painters. There were Polk cousins and Peale cousins, variously accomplished. The family genealogy covers two pages of this large, lavish history, and although one cannot complain of a plethora of Peales, they can become a bewilderment. They were not innovators in the medium. They were impressively capable in portraiture, landscapes, miniatures, and still lifes, but no Peale seriously deviated from the principles Willson had learned from West. They were innovative in other areas, for Willson was interested in almost anything available -- art, antiquities, mechanics, exploration, public affairs (he served in the Revolution), natural history (he excavated a mammoth skeleton) -- and determined to spread enthusiasm for and knowledge of all these subjects. To that end he founded a public museum in Philadelphia and the family learned taxidermy, label writing, methods of curatorship, and the painting of naturalistic habitats in which to display specimens. Such backgrounds were previously unknown, as was a collection of paintings and general material open to the public for a small fee. Willson's sons established similarly inclusive museums in Baltimore and New York. They all eventually went broke, but they are the ancestors of the Smithsonian and of every art museum in the country. Ten authors have written about the Peales to create a comprehensive, beautifully illustrated study of this "family of artistic overachievers." They do not always agree. Ms. Miller commends Willson's advice to "keep an even temper of mind" and "never to return an injury." Brandon Brame Fortune believes that Willson bullied Raphaelle for drinking too much, getting the gout, and painting charming still lifes, which his father considered the lowest form of subject matter. According to an eighteenth-century critic, "They cannot Improve the Mind, they excite no Noble Sentiments." Such disagreements only serve to enliven a well-written and very handsome book.
Mr. Malouf's novel is set in Australia in 1827, in a wilderness area where an escaped convict has been caught and is to be hanged in the morning. The officer sent out to supervise the execution is Irish, and so is the prisoner. As the two talk at intervals through the night, their disparate characters and backgrounds produce some oddly similar questions and also the dissimilar answers arising from dissimilar origins. Something resembling metaphysical sociology underlies Mr. Malouf's tale; invention and elegant prose make it an interesting work.
Mr. Cameron's protagonist, on the run from unspecified disaster, arrives in his imaginary Andorra, from which Spain can be reached by crossing the Pyrenees, and Turkey by sailing west. There is a small expatriate society, principally female, leading the man into romantic imbroglios that he does not much enjoy. Neither, in the end, will the reader, for Mr. Cameron has committed the dishonesty of creating a first-person narrator who never refers to what must, until the final pages, be constantly on his mind. It is a trick that wastes a reader's attention.
Dr. Grandin teaches a course in livestock handling at Colorado State University. She has held a number of other posts, has published a number of professional papers, and is a well-known authority on the management of animals. She is autistic. This account of "My Life With Autism" is not limited to her own experiences. She describes the several variations of the condition as well, but it is her personal vision that is most likely to fascinate the reader. She can see, in her mind, a projected construction in all its detail. She can see why cattle follow one route without protest but object to another that appears equally inoffensive to the average eye. She seems to see people across the equivalent of a very wide ice field, and would prefer that they remain there. She is no misanthropist but rather an intelligent and courageous alien who has learned to function successfully in an unsuitable world. She is amazing and informative. Her original title for this book was A Cow's Eye View, which would have been unduly flattering to cows, but not altogether inappropriate.