Toward a More Productive Conversation About Homework

Questions for teachers, parents and students, from an educational psychologist
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Karl Taro Greenfeld’s essay "My Daughter's Homework Is Killing Me" provides an interesting insight into the amount of homework middle school students at an elite, competitive school are required to complete during the course of a week. It also provides an insight into the impact that homework can have on students and parents, and captures the ambiguous feelings that many parents have about the demands that schools place on their children. Greenfeld obviously values the education his daughter is receiving at the LAB school, so that even though she is required to undertake extremely high levels of homework that have her working well beyond a 13-year-old’s bedtime, and which sometimes leave her upset and exhausted, he doesn’t ever consider the option of a less demanding and competitive school. Instead, he tries to influence individual school teachers to reduce the amount of homework they set for their students, though with limited success.

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My colleague, Mike Horsley, and I wrote our book Reforming Homework: Practices, Learning and Policy so that teachers, parents, and students would have access to the research evidence on homework in a concise and readable form. We hoped that the book would provide the basis for discussions around the benefits and costs of homework and would help school communities to develop fair and reasonable homework policies based on research evidence. Effective school homework policies can go a long way towards limiting excessive homework demands on students; in particular, they can prevent a situation where teachers ignore or are unaware of the requirements of other teachers.

Here are the issues we encourage teachers, parents, and students to consider when they talk about homework:

What is the purpose of homework? Research has focused on the achievement benefits of homework, the extent to which homework assists in the development of self-directed learning skills, the impact of parental involvement in homework activities, and more recently, ways that homework can be made more motivating for students.

In relation to achievement, meta-analyses of the research (see John Hattie’s book Visible Learning) show that the benefits for middle school students are weak, with only about 20 percent of students in grades seven to nine showing higher levels of achievement as a consequence of their homework. The benefits for high school students are greater but even then only about 45 percent of students show homework-related improvements in their achievement. Additionally, recent German research conducted by Ulrich Trautwein and his colleagues has shown clearly that, at the level of the individual student, spending more time on homework is associated with lower achievement outcomes. 

In relation to the development of self-directed learning skills, the research shows that homework can help middle school students to develop these skills. This has only been shown to be the case, though, when parents help their children to do such things as find a suitable place to work, set goals, manage time, and avoid distractions. In the studies by Lyn Corno and her colleagues, parental assistance with, and modeling of, homework management skills has been shown to be associated with higher student levels of these skills. Corno and her colleagues have argued that these skills have been internalized by the children through scaffolded interaction with parents.

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Richard Walker is an associate professor of educational psychology at the University of Sydney.

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