The Silence Around Tibet's Ecological Crisis

How mistrust and fear between Beijing and Tibetans are making a bad environmental problem worse.
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The Potala Palace in Lhasa, in the Tibet Autonomous Region. (Reuters)

"Tibet is still a very sensitive topic, even if your story is about the environment and not politics," said an editor, who prefers to remain unnamed, of the environmental section ofSouthern Weekly, a paper the New York Times has called the most influential liberal newspaper in China.

In early April, several satellite images were sent to Southern Weekly; the pictures suggested that the fatal landslide in a Tibetan mining site on March 29 -- labeled a "natural disaster" -- might be related to inappropriate and illegal operations. However, Southern Weekly did not pursue the matter further, believing that the evidence was "still not strong enough" for them to address such a sensitive topic, although several Chinese and international experts believed otherwise.

"There is no question that the landslide was caused by reckless placement of mine waste by the gold mining operations," said Jack Spadaro, after carefully viewing the two satellite images taken in 2010 and 2012 that were sent by Robbie Barnett, the Director of Modern Tibet Studies in Columbia University. Spadaro is a mining safety and health and environment specialist who has had a 38-year career as an expert witness in litigation related to the environmental, health and safety aspects of mining.

"Based on the available information and those satellite images, it is obvious that the accident is related to mining activities, rather than a pure 'natural disaster' as claimed by so-called experts," said Yang, a geologist specializing in the west China region.

"Tibet's traditional culture is more threatened by global commercialization than it is by the Han Chinese."

China faces serious environmental challenges nationwide, and Tibet is no exception. As announced in the country's 12th five year plan, Tibet was slated to become a mining center and a hydropower engine. While the environmental impacts of mining are well-known, those of hydropower are less so.

"By 2020, the focus of hydropower development would be gradually shifted to Tibet's rivers," said Zhiyong Yan, the General Manager of the China Hydroelectricity Engineering Consulting Group in a 2011 interview for Newenergy.org. "Most of Tibet's hydropower is to be sent out for the whole country's energy needs," he added, noting that 20 percent of hydropower produced in China could eventually come from Tibet.

Hydropower is being developed in part to meet China's goal of ensuring that non-fossil fuel accounts for 15 percent of the energy supply by 2020. However, this not only poses geological risks, especially in southwest China, but also involves environmental degradation around project sites, population migration issues, and other less obvious environmental challenges.

"Hydropower is sometimes accompanied by and becomes a cheap energy supply for heavily polluting industries such as the mining industry," said Jun Ma, the director of the Institute of Public & Environmental Affairs in Beijing, in his 2009 article, "Hydropower's Over-expansion Will Not Help Reduce Carbon Emissions." Indeed, the environment has been greatly impacted in both the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) and the greater Tibetan region.

"We joked that the mountains in Tibet are becoming the bald heads of lamas, and cows are getting skinnier and skinnier," said Nyima*, a Tibetan who used to work in the TAR for an international NGO but now lives in New York. He recalled logs floating in the Ganzi River; massive logging operations in Tibet eventually brought about the flooding of the Yangtze River in 1998. 

Tenzin visited his hometown in east TAR about one year ago and was shocked by the numerous hydropower projects on the river and the desertification near the projects. "I am not an expert on hydropower, but I do not need to become an expert to know it is wrong when you see hydropower stations just several or ten kilometers away from each other," he remarked.

When the Miga Tso hydropower project was delayed because Phuntsok Wangyal, the founder of the Tibet Communist Party, wrote to then-Premier Zhu Rongji, the head of local government blamed him for obstructing the development of his hometown. Indeed, the environmental problem in Tibet is often framed as a choice between environmental protection and economic development.

"The problem is not development, but over-development!" said Tenzin. He believes the over-building of hydropower stations is a result of unregulated competition between different state hydropower groups fighting over profits.

"People from the China Hydropower Group Fourth Bureau and the China Railway Group Seventh Bureau once fought against each other physically while competing for hydro projects; one official from the former one was injured and the project was delayed," said Ms. Zhao, who has an acquaintance in the China Railway Group Seventh Bureau and says she learned this from an inside source.

The implementation of projects, even after vicious fights, has been problematic as well, due to a lack of regulation.

"My hometown's new highway became unusable after just one year. Along the modern highway, because of digging construction materials, the two parties were destroyed without preserving," said Kalsang, a Tibetan living in the Tibetan part of western Qinghai Province.

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Hongxiang Huang is a freelance journalist based in New York. He writes regularly on his personal site, I Stand in the Dark, Welcoming the First Light.

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