The Department of Justice's anti-trust case alleging collusion among Apple and five major publishers to set prices on e-books ended last week. All of the publishers involved, insisting they had done nothing wrong, had already settled with DOJ and a group of state attorneys general rather than confront the very expensive litigation and the prospect of enormous fines should they lose. Only Apple went ahead with the trial, on grounds that it hadn't colluded but had actually spent weeks in early 2010 haggling with the publishers separately over terms just before the launch of the iPad and the iBookstore.
In fact, DOJ's original charges of an active conspiracy among the publishers -- Hachette, Penguin, HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster, and Macmillan -- seemed to become less clear as the courtroom testimony unfolded. According to Apple's lawyer Orin Snyder of the law firm Gibson, Dunn in his closing statement, the publishers actually fought "tooth and nail" with Apple's representatives before reaching agreements on sales terms that, while similar in concept, were not jointly devised. Federal District Judge Denise L. Cote, whose comments at the outset seemed to favor the government's case, spoke with notable admiration at the end of the three weeks about the presentations of the parties.
Publishers Lunch, the industry newsletter, quoted her as saying "the issues have somewhat shifted during the course of the trial and that's how it should be. . . . As you see it play out in the courtroom, things change a little bit and people have to stay nimble." But the next day she went on to say, "On the basis of this trial record I would find that the publishers conspired with each other in December of '09 and January of 2010 to raise eBook prices."
A thorough narrative of the background to the case has just been released by Publishers Weekly as an e-single book, The Battle of $9.99, by Andrew Richard Albanese. At $1.99, it is available from e-retailers and draws adroitly on extensive legal briefs, discovery transcripts, and testimony during the trial. In fact, this e-single is a particularly good example of the evolution of digital publishing over the past three years in which scores of short books are being released by traditional and specialty publishers such as Byliner and Atavist as well as magazines, newspapers, and through a range of self-publishing options. The competition for readers, especially of these nonfiction chronicles, is a significant new factor in the book marketplace that didn't exist to any significant degree as recently as the period from 2007 to 2010, when Kindles were the dominant device and e-books were just beginning to gain popularity.
The Battle of $9.99 is just the right length to summarize how the publishers came to recognize that Amazon's pricing strategy--selling books at a loss as a draw to build the Kindle constituency--amounted to a considerable challenge to publishing's business model. The prospect of the iPad emerging as a formidable competitor to Amazon with a different approach to pricing gave the publishers considerable incentive to work with Apple. But what comes across in Albanese's reporting is less of a formal collaboration among the publishers (the DOJ's original allegations included colorful anecdotes of exclusive CEO dinners where the conspiracy was agreed) than a scramble among a group of book company executives alarmed by the overwhelming power of Amazon in the emerging e-book market. At the time the iPad was released, Amazon had 90 percent of the e-book market with its Kindles.