The Wacky World of Prices: Rental Cars, Hollywood, and HBO

Guest post by Gabriel Rossman -- Sociologist at UCLA. His work applies economic sociology to media industries. He blogs at Code and Culture and is the author of Climbing the Charts.

I study media markets and one of the interesting things about the entertainment industry is there's a lot of complex pricing. This includes both simple bundling (eg, basic cable) and two-part tariffs (eg, HBO). These pricing practices are forms of price discrimination, which is to say they are ways to customize the price point so the seller doesn't leave much money on the table relative to each particular consumer's willingness to pay. It's kind of like haggling but it works at scale over a large number of consumers.

Price discrimination is a mixed bag. On the downside it pushes consumer surplus close to zero, meaning you always feel like you're getting ripped off but not so much that you balk. On the upside it increases total revenues and quantity supplied. The effects can be pretty substantial. For instance, the record labels' main problem isn't decreased quantity supplied but the end of bundling with the switch from albums to singles. Likewise one of the most popular explanations for the decline of the Hollywood studio system is that the Paramount decision banned a form of bundling called block-booking and this decreased revenues sufficiently that the studios couldn't maintain a vertically-integrated production system.

The thing is, that price discrimination is only supposed to work under certain very narrow circumstances. Suppose we have a two-part tariff seller, say, a movie theater selling tickets for $10 and popcorn for $5. If a competing theater opens across the street charging $12 for tickets and $2 for popcorn, you'd expect to see everybody who doesn't like popcorn stay at the first theater and everybody who does like popcorn go to the second theater. That is, a price discrimination scheme should very quickly break down in the face of perfect competition and in fact this problem is so well understood that monopoly is understood to be a scope condition. For instance, the word "monopoly" is in the title of one of the major cites on two-part tariffs.

So what about when you don't have a monopoly or perfect competition, but something in between? In theory, you don't need a perfectly competitive market with innumerable infinitesimally small price-takers in order to get something that looks a lot like a Walrasian auction. This is why industrial-organizational econ loves game theory. Once you apply a prisoner's dilemma model to price competition in a market with two sellers (duopoly) or a handful of sellers (oligopoly), it looks a lot more like a market with an infinite number of sellers (perfect competition) than it does like a market with exactly one seller (monopoly).

The thing is though that we have lots of cases of price discrimination and most of these cases occur in reasonably competitive markets, with multiple sellers and no apparent price-fixing. For instance, I previously noted that movie theaters practice two-part tariffs but let's reflect on the fact that this is a competitive industry. This raises the puzzle of why we haven't seen a chain of movie theaters compete by giving up the two-part tariff business model, which would mean cheaper popcorn but higher ticket prices.

These kinds of issues are why I was so interested when a colleague recently sent me Xavier Gabaix and David Laibson's QJE paper "Shrouded Attributes, Consumer Myopia, and Information Suppression in Competitive Markets" (ungated version). The reason the paper is important is that last phrase about "competitive markets." It shows how all sorts of stuff we already knew could go on with monopolies can also occur under competition. "Shrouded attributes" refers to hidden costs like the marked-up component of the two-part tariff. The "consumer myopia" phrase explains that this works if you make the reasonable assumption that many consumers aren't reasonable.

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Megan McArdle is a columnist at Bloomberg View and a former senior editor at The Atlantic. Her new book is The Up Side of Down.

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